Research shows over 10% of sampled Firebase instances open

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Firebase is Google’s mobile and web app development platform. Developers can use Firebase to facilitate developing mobile and web apps, especially for the Android mobile platform.

At the end of July 2021 we did research into open Firebase instances.

In that research, we found about 180,300 Firebase addresses in our systems and found approximately 19,300 of those Firebase DBs, 10.7% of the tested DBs were open, exposing the data to unauthenticated users, due to misconfiguration by the app developers. This is quite a large percentage.

These addresses were statically and dynamically extracted from different sources, mainly from Android apps.

We took these Firebase addresses and examined them to see how many were open. In our testing, we looked only for instances that were open for “Read” access without credentials. We didn’t test for write access for obvious reasons.

These open Firebase instances put the data stored and used by the apps developed using it at risk of theft, because apps can store and use a variety of information, some of it including personally identifiable information (PII) like names, birthdates, addresses, phone numbers, location information, service tokens and keys among other things. When developers use bad practices DBs can even contain

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