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There are currently 36 terms in this directory beginning with the letter B.
A backdoor is a hidden or unauthorised access point or method deliberately inserted into a system, application, or network by design or as a result of a security vulnerability. Backdoors provide a way for attackers to bypass normal authentication or gain unauthorised access for malicious purposes.

Backing Up
Backing up refers to the process of creating copies of data or system configurations and storing them in a separate location or medium to protect against data loss, system failures, or disasters. Backups enable the restoration of data and systems to a previous state in case of accidental deletion, hardware failures, or other incidents.

Backing Up Data
Backing up data involves creating duplicate copies of critical information or files and storing them securely to prevent data loss in case of hardware failures, natural disasters, cyberattacks, or human errors. It is an essential practice for data protection, recovery, and business continuity purposes.

A key algorithm used to train neural networks by computing the gradients of the loss function with respect to the model's parameters. Backpropagation propagates the error back through the network, allowing for efficient parameter updates and learning.

Backup And Recovery Testing
Backup and recovery testing is the process of verifying the effectiveness and reliability of backup systems and procedures by simulating data loss or system failures and testing the recovery capabilities. It ensures that backups are properly created, stored, and can be successfully restored when needed.

Baiting is a social engineering technique that involves enticing or tricking individuals into taking a specific action, such as clicking on a malicious link or opening an infected file, by offering something of value or interest. Baiting attacks often rely on curiosity or the promise of rewards to manipulate victims into compromising their security.

Bayesian Inference
A probabilistic framework used to make predictions and update beliefs based on prior knowledge and observed data. Bayesian inference involves calculating posterior probabilities by combining prior probabilities and likelihood functions, allowing for principled uncertainty estimation and decision-making.

Bayesian Networks
Probabilistic graphical models that represent and analyze uncertain relationships between variables, using Bayesian inference for reasoning and decision-making.

Behaviour-Based Detection
Behaviour-based detection is a cybersecurity approach that focuses on analysing and monitoring the behaviour of systems, users, or entities to identify and respond to suspicious or abnormal activities indicative of a security threat. It involves establishing baseline behaviour patterns and using anomaly detection techniques to identify deviations and potential threats.

Behavioural Analytics
Behavioural analytics involves analysing patterns of human or system behaviour to detect anomalies, threats, or security risks. By establishing baseline behaviour and using statistical or machine learning techniques, behavioural analytics can identify deviations, unusual activities, or indicators of compromise that may go unnoticed by traditional security controls.

Behavioural Biometrics
Behavioural biometrics refers to the analysis and measurement of unique behavioural patterns and characteristics, such as typing rhythm, mouse movements, voice patterns, or swipe gestures, to verify or authenticate the identity of an individual. It is a form of biometric authentication that relies on behavioural traits rather than physical attributes.

Systematic errors or prejudices in AI models or algorithms that can lead to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.

Big Data
Extremely large and complex datasets that require advanced tools and techniques to store, process, and analyze.

Binary Code
Binary code is a computer representation of data or instructions using a binary system of ones (1) and zeros (0). It is the fundamental language understood by computers, and all software and data are ultimately converted to binary code for processing and execution by the computer's hardware.

Biometric Authentication
Biometric authentication is a method of verifying an individual's identity based on their unique biological or behavioural characteristics. It uses biometric traits, such as fingerprints, facial features, iris patterns, voiceprints, or behavioural patterns, to authenticate users and grant access to systems, applications, or data.

Biometric Data
Biometric data refers to unique physical or behavioural characteristics that can be used for biometric authentication or identification purposes. It includes attributes such as fingerprints, facial features, iris or retinal patterns, hand geometry, voiceprints, or behavioural patterns like keystroke dynamics or gait recognition.

Biometric Identifier
A biometric identifier is a distinctive feature or characteristic used to uniquely identify an individual based on their biological or behavioural traits. Examples of biometric identifiers include fingerprints, handprints, facial features, voiceprints, DNA profiles, or iris patterns.

Biometric Template
A biometric template is a digital representation or mathematical model generated from an individual's biometric data, such as fingerprints, iris patterns, or facial features. The template is securely stored and used for comparison and matching during biometric authentication or identification processes.

Biometrics refers to the science and technology of measuring and analysing unique physical or behavioural characteristics of individuals for authentication, identification, or surveillance purposes. It encompasses biometric data collection, processing, analysis, and matching algorithms to establish and verify identities.

Black Hat Hacker
A black hat hacker is an individual or group of hackers who engage in unauthorised activities, exploit vulnerabilities, and violate computer security for personal gain, malicious intent, or criminal activities. Black hat hackers typically operate with malicious intent and are associated with cybercrime and illicit activities.

A blacklist is a list of entities, such as IP addresses, domains, or applications, that are identified as malicious, unauthorised , or prohibited. It is used in various security systems, such as firewalls, email filters, or web filtering tools, to block or restrict access to listed entities.

Blockchain Security
Blockchain security refers to the protection and integrity of data stored within a blockchain network. It involves ensuring the confidentiality, immutability, and availability of transactions and blocks by using cryptographic techniques, consensus algorithms, and network controls to prevent tampering, unauthorised access, or fraud.

Bluetooth Security
Bluetooth security encompasses the measures and protocols employed to secure wireless communication between Bluetooth-enabled devices. It includes authentication, encryption, and pairing mechanisms to protect against unauthorised access, data interception, or device manipulation over Bluetooth connections.

A bot, short for robot, is a software program or script that performs automated tasks or actions on the internet. Bots can be beneficial, such as search engine crawlers or chatbots, but they can also be malicious, such as malware bots or bots used in DDoS attacks or spam campaigns.

Bot Detection
Bot detection refers to the process of identifying and distinguishing between human users and automated bots. It involves using various techniques, such as analysing user behaviour, fingerprinting, CAPTCHAs, or machine learning algorithms, to detect and mitigate the presence of malicious or unwanted bots.

Bot Herder
A bot herder is an individual or group who controls and manages a network of compromised computers or devices, known as a botnet. Bot herders typically use botnets for malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam distribution, information theft, or carrying out coordinated cyberattacks.

A botmaster is an individual or entity that controls and operates a network of compromised computers or bots, known as a botnet. The botmaster is responsible for issuing commands, coordinating bot activities, and exploiting the resources of the compromised systems for various malicious purposes.

A botnet is a network of compromised computers, servers, or devices that are under the control of a botmaster. Botnets are typically created by infecting devices with malware, allowing the botmaster to remotely control and coordinate the actions of the compromised devices, often for malicious activities.

Botnet Attack
A botnet attack is an orchestrated assault carried out by a botmaster using a network of compromised computers or devices. Botnet attacks can involve various malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam campaigns, distributing malware, stealing sensitive information, or carrying out coordinated cyberattacks.

Browser Extension Security
Browser extension security refers to the protection and integrity of browser extensions, which are add-ons or plugins that extend the functionality of web browsers. It involves vetting and verifying extensions, sandboxing their execution, and implementing security controls to prevent malicious or unauthorised extensions from compromising user privacy or security.

Browser Security
Browser security refers to the measures and practices implemented to protect web browsers from security vulnerabilities, malicious websites, and unauthorised access or activities. It involves keeping browsers updated, configuring secure settings, using secure browsing habits, and employing browser security extensions or add-ons.

Brute Force Attack
A brute force attack is a trial-and-error method used by attackers to gain access to passwords, encryption keys, or sensitive data by systematically trying all possible combinations until the correct one is found. Brute force attacks rely on computational power to overcome password complexity and are often mitigated by implementing strong password policies and rate-limiting mechanisms.

Brute Forcing
Brute forcing is the act of systematically attempting all possible combinations or permutations to discover passwords, encryption keys, or other sensitive information. It is a common method used in password cracking, encryption breaking, or discovering cryptographic algorithms' weaknesses.

Buffer Overflow
A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary storage area) than it can handle, leading to the overflow of excess data into adjacent memory regions. Buffer overflows can be exploited by attackers to execute malicious code, overwrite memory contents, or crash a system, potentially leading to security vulnerabilities.

Buffer Overflow Attack
A buffer overflow attack is a type of security exploit in which an attacker deliberately inputs more data than a program or process can handle, causing the excess data to overflow into adjacent memory regions. By manipulating the overflowed data, an attacker can gain unauthorised access, execute arbitrary code, or compromise the system's security.

Bug Bounty
A bug bounty is a reward or incentive program offered by organisations to encourage individuals or security researchers to identify and report security vulnerabilities, bugs, or weaknesses in their software, systems, or networks. Bug bounties help organisations identify and fix vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious actors.